At the University Archives and Records Depository (UPIANA) Preservation Services Section, there is a hidden collection of busts of Philippine heroes, which we sculpted by Graciano T. Nepomuceno (1881-1974), in the 1930s. These busts once graced the U.P. Library in Manila, before they were transferred along with the “Oblation” in 1949. Sadly, these wooden pieces are now breaking apart due to decades of exposure to the elements, and their location at the open windowed offices are causing greater harm to the artworks. Beneath each bust is a quote from a writing or speech of each hero.
Graciano T. Nepomuceno (1881-1974) was a noted classical sculptor, who made his niche during the American Occupation. Nepomuceno studied painting painting under Miguel Zaragoza y Aranquizna (1847- 1923) at Liceo Filipino, and sculpture under prize-winning sculptor Ciriaco Arevalo. Aside from beautiful symbolical wooden sculptures, he is also known for creating the decorative panels at the Malacañang Palace and the façade of Metropolitan Theater. Nepomuceno is also known for his intricately sculpted santos (saints).
Looking at the collection of busts, visitors can form a sense of the recounting of Philippine history, with each figure relating important eras in our nation’s story. The first bust is that of Francisco Baltazar (born Francisco Balagtas y de la Cruz; 1788-1862) a poet during the Spanish Colonial Period (1521-1898), whose works helped define Philippine literature, specifically writing in the native language of Tagalog. His most noted piece was the epic poem “Florante at Laura” (Florante and Laura), which he penned in 1838. The epic is still taken up by students, and its full title is “Pinagdaanang Buhay nina Laura at Florante sa Kahariang Albanya: Kinuha sa madlang “cuadro histórico” o pinturang nagsasabi sa mga nangyayari nang unang panahon sa Imperyo ng Gresya, at tinula ng isang matuwain sa bersong Tagalog” (The History of Florante and Laura in the Kingdom of Albania: Adapted from some ‘historical pictures’ or paintings that tell of what happened in early times in the Greek Empire, and were set to rhyme by one delighting in Tagalog verse). Written below is Baltazar’s lesson to parents, which is an excerpt from his famous epic, “Florante at Laura”:
Aral sa mga Tamad na Magulang
“Ang taong magawi sa ligaya’t aliw,
mahina ang puso’t lubhang maramdamin;
inaakala pa lamang ang hilahil
na daratni’y ‘di na matutuhang bathin.”
“Munting kahirapa’y mamalakhing dala,
dibdib palibhasa’y ‘di gawing magbata,
ay bago sa mundo’y walang kisapmata,
ang tao’y mayroong sukat ipagdusa.”
“Ang laki sa layaw karaniwa’y hubad
sa bait at muni’t sa hatol ay salat;
masaklap na bunga ng maling paglingap,
habag ng magulang sa irog na anak.”
“Sa taguring bunso’t likong pagmamahal,
ang isinasama ng bata’y nunukal;
ang iba’y marahil sa kapabayaan
ng dapat magturong tamad na magulang.”
A Lesson for Lazy Parents
A person who is raised only in pleasure and joy
Is weak of heart and prone to illness
Whatever challenge is imagined causes him distress
And when the time comes to face his trials, he will fail.
The smallest of problems will become great burdens
To a body not hewn with work
New to the world, in less than a blink of an eye
A person who will have deep regret
A pampered man is often naked
In the face of a simple judgment, becomes a crisis
A bitter fruit of false thoughts
When the parent raise their child
To the doted child with a misplaced love
And the fear to one’s child in tears
Is different from negligence
And need to discipline these lazy parents.”
Next is a set of busts of three priests, famously known as the GOMBURZA; which is a word that took the first letter of Fr. Mariano GOMez, Fr. Jose BURgos, and Fr. Jacinto ZAmora. The three priests were implicated as conspirators in the failed Cavite Mutiny of January 20, 1872. The uprising was lead by native military personnel of Fort San Felipe, in the province of Cavite, as a reaction to taxed placed on these men. With the rebellion quelled, many of the leaders and conspirators were arrested and executed. To make a sample to instill fear against any other nationalistic movements of the natives, the three priests were publicly executed in the slow and excruciating garrote. This lead to a national indignation, and fueled the fires of the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Spanish colonizers.
Nang Iharap si Padre Zamora sa Hukuman Sandatahan ng Kastila
Nang humarap si Padre Zamora sa hukuman sandatahan ng Kastila ay tinanong siya ng pangulo:
“Kayo’y isinumbong ditto ng tagausig, Kumandante Manuel Buscasa, na nangagaral ng laban sa kapangyarihan ng Papa at Hari ng España.
Sumagot si Padre Zamora:
“Opo, sapgkat sinusunod naming po naming angtagubilin ng Sampung Utos ng Dios. Dahil sa ang aming mga kabaro sa relihyon ay hindi ipinangaral ang nabanggit na mga utos. Ano ang ipinangagaral nila? Ang ipinangagaral nila po ay mangumpisal, magpa-misa, magpa-nobena, at manghingi ng mga itolg, inahin na manok at bigas at ang lahat na ito’y ipinatutunkol sa kaluluwa ng aming mga magulang ang lahat na ito’y lisiya sa mga kautusan ng Dios.”
Excerpts from the trial of Fr. Zamora before the Spanish Military Tribunal
When Fr, Zamora was presented to the Spanish Military Tribunal, the president addresses him:
“You have been accused by the prosecutor Commandant Manuel Buscasa as a conspirator spreading information against the Pope and the King of Spain.”
Fr. Zamora answers:
“Yes, as we are following the Ten Commandments of God. However, our fellow priests are not teaching this. And what are they teaching? They preach about confessions, attending mass, praying the Novena, and beg for donations of eggs, chickens and rice; which are against the teachings of our parents and the commandments of God.”
Nang Iharap si Padre Burgos sa Hukuman Sandatahan ng Kastila
Ang pangulo noto’y nagtanong kay Padre Burgos:
“Kayo’y isinasakdal ditto ng taga-usig na si Kumandante Manuel Buscasa, nangangaral sa bayan laban sa Papa, at kayo’y sumusulat ng mga aklat laban din sa Papa at sa Hari ng España, ang mga aklat ay ang sumusunod:
La Historia de la Religion Romana y sus Misterios
Que es el Prayle
Los Misterios de la Carrera Sacerdotal
Los Cides de Filipinas
Misterios de la Santificacion
Reglamento de la Administracion del Confesionario
Como se Forma las Religiones
Son Verdades los Milagros
Los Misterios de la Santa Inquisicion en Filipinas
Puede la Religion Mejoral al Hombre
Remedios Que el Pais Necesita
Calamidades Publicas en este Pais
Cultivo de la Inteligencia de este Pais
Los Reyes Filipinos
La Lucha de la Religion Contra la Ciencia
Ang mga ito’y totoo ba?”
Si Padre Burgos ay sumagot ng mahinahon:
“Opo, ang mga sinulat ko’y tumutulong sa Papa at sa Hari. Dito po sa aking bayan ay walang katwiran at katarungan, at ang lahat ng aking mga kabaro sa religiyon at panay na panglilinglang, at hindi ang Sampung Utos ng Diyos ang itinuturo.”
Excerpts from the trial of Fr. Burgos before the Spanish Military Tribunal
The president of the Spanish Military Tribunal asks Fr. Burgos:
“You are accused by the prosecutor, Commandant Manuel Buscasa of speaking against Pope, and that you have written books against the Pope and the King of Spain. These books are:
The History of Religion and Roman Mysteries
What is the Friar?
The Mysteries of the Priestly Career
The Death of the Philippines
Mysteries of Sanctification
Regulations of the Administration of the Confessional
How Religions are Formed
The Truths of Miracles
The Mysteries of the Holy Inquisition in the Philippines
Can Religion Improve Mankind
Remedies for the Country’s Needs
Calamites of the Populace and People
The Intelligent Culture of the Philippines
The Regal Filipinos
The War of Religion against Science
Is this true?”
Fr. Burgos replies:
“Yes, the books that I have written are to help the Pope and the King. Here, my fellow priests have no sense or reason and justice, as they go about preaching but not the ten Commandments of God.”
Wala Kaming Kasalanan
“Bukas ay kiktlan tayo ng buhay, kung tayo’y may kasalanan man, ang kasalanan natin ay di ibang pagkakasalang labag sa mata ng Dios. Kung kasalanan ang magtangol sa karapatan ng sarili laban sa panglulupig na ginagawa at ibig gawin sa atin ng ating mga kapatid sa abito. Tayo’y makasalanan nga, ngunit ang bayan ay hindi natutulog, Magiging mabigat ang kabayaran ng ating buhay kapag ang bayan ang siyang naniningil.
Patawarin sila ng Dios sapagkat di nila batid ang kanilang ginagawa.”
We have done no wrong
Tomorrow, we will be dead. If we have done any wrong, our actions are not sins in the eyes of God. Is it a sin to fight for our rights against the greed that has been done and will be done by our other brothers of the cloth? Yes, we are at fault, and the people are not a sleep anymore. Our lives are a great price, for the people to demand what is right.
The execution of the GOMBURZA signified to the wealthy natives, that no one was safe from the wrath of the Spanish authorizes and the corrupt clergy. This lead to many of the intellectuals to form an underground propaganda movement, that sought reforms in the Spanish colonial system. One of these reformists was Jose Ma. Panganiban y Enverga (1863-1890), who was one of writers and contributors for “La Solidaridad” (Solidarity), a newspaper published by indio (Philippine natives) scholars in Barcelona, from 1889 to 1895. Their articles were aimed to create discussion in Spain over the policies and government in the Philippines.
Bakit Ninyo Kami Aalipinin?
“Bakit ninyo kami aalipinin? Hindi ninyo kami nakuha sa lakas. Nakipagkaibigan kayo sa amin at tinuruan kami inyong karunungan at saka ngayon aalipinin ninyo kami. Kung ngayon ay iiwanan naming kayo at uuwi na kami sa aming pinanggalingan.”
Why are you Enslaving Us?
Why are you enslaving us? You did not get us through the use of force. We made peace with you, and you in turn shared your knowledge. And now you try to subjugate us. Hence we will leave you, and we shall return to our homeland.
During the publication of “La Solidaridad” Graciano López Jaena (1856-1896) acted as its editor. Lopez-Jaena first wanted to become a doctor, which he tried to pursue in Spain. Dropping out of his chosen course, he soon became known as journalist and orator.
“Ang pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa at pagmamalasakit sa kabalat, kahit sa anong paraan isagawa ay kikilanlin at kikilalaning isang kabayanihan”
The love for your native land and the care for your countrymen, no matter what means it is expressed, is recognized as an act of heroism.
Another member of the propaganda movement of Philippine scholars in Spain was Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán (1850-1896), better known by his pen name Plaridel. Del Pilar was already known for his anti-friar activities in the Philippines, and was banished to Spain for his actions. There he joined the propagandists and the “La Solidaridad”, where he would later replace Lopez-Jaena as editor.
Paalam na mga Kapatid
“Paalam na mga kapatid,ako’y tutungo sa España upang sikapin ang pagpapaalis ng mga prayle sa ating inang-bayan.
Kung ako’y mamatay at humarap sa Maykapal at ako’y tanungin:
“Marcelo, nakagasilbi ka na ba labis sa bayan?”
Si Marcelo ay nagpasalamay at sinabi:
“Panginoon ko, kung duon sa Gloria ay mayroon prayle ipadala na po Ninyo ako sa Impierno, siguro po ay wala duon prayle.”
Farewell My Brothers
Farewell my brothers, as I am embarking towards Spain to continue my quest to have the friars driven away from our motherland.
If I were to die and face God, and He asks me:
“Marcelo, have you served your country to the fullest?”
I would thank Him, and answer:
“My Lord, if in heaven there are friars, send me to hell, as I am sure there are no friars there.”
The most known among the propagandists is the Philippine National Hero, Dr. José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (1861-1896). Dr. Rizal was a renaissance man; who was known as opthamologist, historian, poet, journalist, sculptor, playwright, caricaturist, painter, inventor, polyglot, botanist, and anthropologist. However, his greatest impact in Philippine history was being a driving force in the Reform and Propaganda movements that pushed for greater equality among the Indios (natives) and the Spanish. With his social commentary novels “Noli Me Tángere” and “El filibusterismo”, Rizal was condemned as a subversive and executed by firing squad.
Mi Ultimo Adios (excerpt)
“Mamamatay ako nang di nakikitang ang kalinawagan ay nagniningning sa aking bayan. . . Kayong sa kanya’y nakamalas ay batiin ninyo siya. . . Huwag ninyong lilimutin ang mga lumagpak sa gitna ng kadiliman ng gabi.”
The Last Farewell
I will die not seeing the beauty and glory of my country. Give honor to her, and never forget those who have fallen in the darkness of the night.”
While the propagandists campaigned for reforms in the Spanish rule over the Philippines, others were set towards independence. Inspired by the reform movement, Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro (1863-1897) took a different path and has become and sought independence from the Spanish rule. Known as the “Father of the Philippine Revolution”, Bonifacio was one of the founders of the Katipunan (Kataas-taasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan). However, he was betrayed and later executed by a faction within the movement.
Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan
I. Ibigin mo ang Dios ng buong puso
II. Pakatandaang lagi na ang tunay na pag-ibig sa Dios ay siya ring pag-ibig sa tinubuan at iyan din ang pag-ibig sa kapwa
III. Itanim sa iyong puso na tunay na kahalagan ng puri’t kaginhawahan ay ang ika’y mamatay dahil sa ikaliligtas ng inang-bayan
IV. Lahat ng iyong matbuting hangad ay magwawagi kapag ikaw’y may hinahon, tiyaga, katwiran at pag-asa sa iyong inaasal at ginagawa
V. Pag-ingatan mo, kagaya ng pag-iingat sa sariling puri, ang mga pasya at adhikain ng KKK
VI. Katungkulan ng lahat na ang nabibingit sa malaking kapahamakan sa pagtupad ng kanyang tungkulin ay iligtas, sukdulang ikapariwara ng sariling buhay at kayamanan
VII. Ang kaugalian natin sa ating sarili at sa pagtupad ng ating tungkulin ay siyang kukunan ng halimbawa ng ating kapwa
VIII. Bahaginan mo ng iyong makakayanan ang sino mang mahirap at kapus-palad
IX. Ang sipag sa paggawa na iyong ikabubuhay ay siyang tunay na sanhi ng pag-ibig, pagmamahal sa sarili, sa iyong asawa’t mga anak, sa iyong kapatid at mga kababayan
X. Parusahan ang sinumang masamang tao’t taksil, at purihin ang mabubuting gawa. Dapat mong paniwalaan na ang tinutungo ng KKK ay mga biyaya ng Diyos; na ano pa’t ang mga ninasa ng Inang-Bayan, ay mga nasahin din ng Dios
Responsibilities to enact by the Sons of the Nation
I. Love God with all your heart
II. Remember that is holds true that the love of God is just the same as the love for your motherland, and the love for your neighbors
III. Put it in your heart that the true meaning of wealth and peace is that you will die for the freedom of your motherland
IV. Every good plan will come to pass if you have self-control, perseverance, righteousness and hope in what you do
V. Hold sacred the teachings and aims of the Katipunan, just as much as how you protect your honor
VI. It is the responsibility of all to ensure the safety and success of any man who is in danger of failing his own responsibilities, even to sacrifice one’s own life and property
VII. How we enact our responsibilities is what we should use as samples of proper living to our neighbors
VIII. Share your skills, lnowledge and wealth to thos who are less fortunate
IX. The fortitude and discipline you apply in your life is the true root of love for your person, your spouse and children, your family, and your countrymen
X. Penalize and wrong doer, and honor those who do good. Remember that the aims of the Katipunan are in the blessing of God, and whatever we strive for the motherland is also for God
Once the Katipunan movement was discovered by the Spanish authorities, the Philippine Revolution (1896-1898) and independence was declared with the Sigaw ng Pugad Lawin. Among the members was Gen. Emilio Jacinto y Dizon (1875-1899), who served as one of the youngest generals in the Katipunan, and was a member of its Supreme Council. Jacinto was elected Secretary of State of the revolutionary government, and his quick and tactical thinking lead to his fame as the Brains of the Katipunan.
Ang Isang Tao nasa Mataas na Katungkulan
“Ang isang tao na sa mataas na katungkulan tumutupad at nagpapatupad ng mga batas sa kanyang bayan matatawag natin makabayan.
Ang isang tao nasa mataas na katungkulan, na hindi gumagalang sa katarungan at katwiran at sinasamantala ang magpayaman sa kanyang bayan, siya’y taksil sa kanyang lupang tinubuan.”
A Person of the Highest Authority
A person with a high position of authority must create and enact laws of the land that are for the people and the land.
After the death of Bonifacio, the Katipunan was lead by General Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964), who declared himself the president of the new Republic of the Philippines. During the course of the revolution, Aguinaldo was caught and exiled to Hong Kong, where we elicited the help of the Americans in the revolution. Also in the middle of the Spanish-American War (1898), the American agreed to help. However, during the siege of Manila, when the Spanish forced surrendered, the Americans sealed off the city and declared the Philippines as their new colony. This was cemented with the Treaty of Paris. The Filipinos were angered and upheld the Philippine Republic, and proclaimed the Malolos Constitution in 1899. There Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (1864-1903) was elected as the first Prime Minister of the Philippine Republic. Mabini was wheelchair bound due to polio, but that didn’t stop him from his work in the Philippine Revolution against Spain and later America. Mabini’s two of his works, “El Verdadero Decalogo” (The True Decalogue, 1898), and “Programa Constitucional dela Republica Filipina” (The Constitutional Program of the Philippine Republic, 1898) became the basis in the drafting the Malolos Constitution.
Aral ni Mabini
“Pagpilitan mo muna ang kaligayahan ng iyong bayan bago ang iyong sarili. Gawing sa kanya’y maghari ang katwiran, ang katarungan at ang paggawa, sapagkat kung siya’y maligaya, ay liligaya ka rin, pati ang iyong angkan.
Huwag kang kikilangling kapangyarihan ninoman sa iyong bayan na hindi halal mo at ng iyong mga kababayan, sapagkat ang buong kapangyarihan ay nagmumula sa Dios, ay Siyang nangugusap sa budhi ng bawat tao, ang tao na mapili mo at isigaw ng mga budhi ng sambayanan, ay siya ang tanging maaring magtaglay ng tunay na kapangyarihan. “
Put first the joy of your country, before your own pleasures. Enact up her the rule of truth, justice and industry; because when the country is prosperous, so shall you and your clan.
Seek no power or position that what not duly elected by your countrymen, because the true power comes from God, and He speaks through the consciences of all the people, and to the people you must shout out to the world what is in their consciousness, and that is the sign of true power.
With the American Occupation of the Philippines (1898-1946), tensions between the Philippine government and former revolutionaries lead to the Philippine-American War (1899-1902 “officially ended”). Gen. Antonio Novicio Luna (1866-1899) was one of the best strategists and fiercest generals of that war. Brother to the renowned painter, Juan Luna, he first was part of the propaganda movement, and sought only reforms in the Spanish occupation, including the declaration that the Philippines becomes and province of Spain, thus considering all natives as Spaniards of equal rights. Although Luna was very successful in many of his campaigns against the Americans, his sharp words and short temper lead to many colleagues hating him, and eventually assassinating him.
Maligaya ang Mamatay
“Maligaya ang mamatay sa pagkikipaglaban kung may kalipinan sa aking bayan. Lalong maligaya ang buhay ko kung may Kalayaan at katarungan ang aking inang-bayan.”
To Die Happily
I would die happily, if my death was in the act of fighting for the good of my country. But I would be much happier is I would die when freedom is obtained, and justice rules the land.
One of the officers of the Philippine-American war, Manuel Luis Quezón de Molina (1878-1944), would later rise to become the 2nd President of the Republic of the Philippines (1935-1944). After the war, Quezon returned to his law studies, and started working in various government agencies after graduation. In 1907, he was elected as a representative in the 1st Philippine Assembly, and later elected as senator in 1916, and became senate president. He died in America, after he was extracted from the Philippines at the height of World War II.
Ang Kabayanihan ni Andres Bonifacio (1938)
“Isinilang sa isang salin-lahing natatatakan ng kawalang-katarungan at paguusig, nagawa ni Andres Bonifacio sa kanyang sarili na rin na maging isang ganap na lalaki, na nahahandang bakahin ang kalupitan at di-pagkakapantay-pantay, at mamatay alang-alang sa kanyang pananalig at sa kanyang bayan. Nasa kanya ang simbuyo ng damdamin at tapang ng loob alang-alang sa katarungan at matawid na nagbigay-sigla sa isang matipunong bansa sa mga gawang kagitingan. Sa ngayon habang lalong lululusog ang diwang makabansang Pilipino, si Bonifacio ay malugod na ginugunita natin upang patibayin ang ating katauhan, ang ating moralidad, ang ating mga adhikain, at nang sa gayo’y lalong maging handa tayo sa pagdatal ng kasarinlan na tatamasahin natin sa lalong medaling panahon.”
The Heroism of Andres Bonifacio
Born in the face of generations of injustice and persecution of the Filipino people, Andres Bonifacio was able to uplift himself to an upright man, who was ever ready to fight against the cruelty and inequality, and die for the love of his country. In him, we find the greatest symbol of passion and bravery in service of equity and peace to an honorable people, through his heroic actions. Now, as we continue to strive for the true spirit of the Philippines, we honor Bonifacio as a means to strengthen our resolve, our morality, our hopes, and that we will ready to taste that independence in the soonest time.
During the Quezon presidency, Sergio Osmeña, Sr. (1878-1961) served as his vice-president. He then became the 4th President of the Philippines, with Jose P. Laurel (1891-1959) recognized as the 3rd president. Osmeña, first served under Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine American War, and later became governor of the province of Cebu, in 1906. He later became a representative in the 1st Philippine Assembly of 1907, and became a senator in 1916, where he became the Speaker of the House opposite Quezon’s senate presidency. After his presidency, Osmeña ran for reelection in 1946, but was defeated by Manuel Roxas (1892-1948). Shortly he retire from government service, and returned to his native Cebu.
Ang Kilusan (speech given to the Philippine Senate, while a congressman in the 1920s)
“Ang kilusang ito sa loob ng labinlimang taong nakalipas ay isang kilusan ukol sa kalayaan. Ang bawat bahagi ng tulong-tulong na gawaing ito, ay udyod ng mithin ukol dito. Hindi tayo ang nagsimula ng kilusang ito. Ang pinakamaningning na bakas nito ay makikita sa nagdaang himagsikan nang si Andres Bonifacio at ang kanyang mga kasama ay makitalad sa larangan na handing pumatay at mapatay sa ikatutubos ng kanilang bayan.
Napasaatin ang diwa ng himagsikan at nakuha natin ang kabayanihan at pagpapakasakit ng ating mga kawal. Nagsalong tayo ng sandata nang hindi sumusuko; manapay upang lalong panghawakan ang mithin ng bansa.
Kailangan pabulanan natin ang mga paratang laban sa mga Pilipino, lalung-lao na ang mga paratang laban sa himagsikan. Ilan sa mga paratang na iyan ay ang diumano’y kawalan natin ng pambansang pagkakaisa, kamangmangan ng mga mamayan, at ganap na kawalan ng kakayahan sa sariling pamamahala.”
After fifteen years, the movement towards independence and freedom has not been forgotten. We all work hand-in-hand that we achieve this. We did not start this movement, and the brightest sample that we may look upon is the revolution started by Andres Bonifacio and his Katipunan, who were ready to kill and be killed for the freedom of their motherland.
Let us imbibe this fighting spirit, and achieve the heroism and love of these warriors. We may have put away our weapons but we have never surrendered, and we wait for that day we will grasp that freedom.
We must give attention to these threats against the Filipino people, especially the military actions (of the Americans?). Many of these actions have lead to our disunity, forgetfulness of the people, and the loss of the ability to self govern.
During the American Occupation of the Philippines, the University of the Philippines was established in 1908. The 4th president of the university was Rafael Palma y Velasquez (1874-1939), who served from 1925 to 1933. Already noted as an educator and writer, Palma was then elected as a senator in 1919. He wrote many books and papers, especially about the National Hero Jose Rizal, such as “The Pride of the Malay Race”.
Ang Pasyon at Kamatayan ni Andres Bonifacio
Noong ika-30 ng Nobyembre, 1863, sumikat ang araw na lubhang maningning, malamig ang simoy ng hangin at kaayaaya ang mga kulay ng panginorin dahil isinilang ang isang lalaki na siyang lumagot sa tanikala ng kaalipan.
Ang lalaking ito ay si Andres Bonifacio, bata pa siya’y nangaral na sa bayan ng pag-ibig sa Diyos, pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa at sa katarungan; marami siyang sinulat tungkol sa kaalipang ginawa ng mga prayle at Kastila.
Noong taong 1887, hinikayat ni Dr. Rizal si Andres Bonifacio upang maitayo ang Liga Filipina na lumalaganap sa buong kapuluan. Umalis si Dr, Rizal ng taong 1888 at nagtungo sa Hong Kong, at nang nagbalik sa Pilipinas ng 1892 ay ipinabilanggo at ipinatapon siya sa Dapitan. Ito ang dahilan ng ikinasama ng loob ni Bonifacio. Noon din ay tinawag niya ang kanyang kamag-aral na sina Ladislao Diwa, Jose Trinidad, Teodoro Plata, Valentin Diaz at Deodato Arellano at itinatag nila ang Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalang, Katipunan ng Bayan; isang samahang makabayang lumaganap agad sa kapuluan.
Ng taong 1896, napatunayan ni Bonifacio na laganap na sa buong kakahulugan ang Katipunan. Tinipon niya ang kanyang mga kasapi sa Balintawak upang ipahayag na dapat nang humiwalay sa mga gawaing pang-aalipin ng prayle at Kastila.
Si Kristo’y kinainglangan, dinala sa bundok makakalbaryo, pinahirapan ipinako sa krus at sinibat sa tagiliran hanggang na mamatay, si Andres Bonifacio, dinala sa bundok ng Maragondong, Kavite, at pinagtataga hanggang mamatay.”
The Passion and Death of Andres Bonifacio
On the 30th of November, 1863, the sun rose with such brilliance, the air was fresh and cool, and the colors of the countryside glowed invitingly, because a child was born to break our shackles of slavery.
This boy is Andres Bonifacio, and as a child he already speaking for the love of God, love of the motherland, and for justice; ang he wrote many papers about the cruelty of the friars and the Spanish.
In the year 1887, Dr. Jose Rizal invited Bonifacio to help found the La Liga Filipina (The Filipino League) and spread it all over the archipelago. However, Rizal left for Hong Kong in 1888, and upon his return in 1892, he was arrested and exiled to Dapitan. This was the reason of Bonifacio spite for the Spaniards. There and then, he called upon former classmates Ladislao Diwa, Jose Trinidad, Teodoro Plata, Valentin Diaz, and Deodato Arellano at they founded the Katipunan.
In 1896, Bonifacio proved the solidarity and strength of the Katipunan, when they gathered at Balintawak, and declared the independence of the Philippines from the Spanish colonizers and the treacherous friars.
Just as Christ was faced the calvary of carry his cross to the hill of Golgotha, whipped, nailed to the cross, speared, until he died; the same can be said of Bonifacio, who was brought to Mount Maragondong, in the province of Cavite, and hacked to death.
Although many clans rose to prominence and wealth during the American Occupation of the Philippines, many of their leaders held with contempt the unfair laws enforced by the Americans, as well as their brutal campaigns against anyone who would fight for independence. Many of these men and women would write scathing papers in underground newspapers against these new oppressors, and among them was Teodoro Manguiat Kalaw (1884-1940), who was a noted politician, historian, journalist, and publisher. Aside from his work as the secretary to President Quezon and his stint as a member of the Philippine Assembly, Kalaw also appointed as the director of the National Library. Kalaw contributed and even became the editor of El Renacimiento (The Renaissance), a radical nationalist newspaper.
Sa isa sa mga Kasulatan ng Himagsikan, Ang sumusunod ay siyang tinutukoy na pangunahing dahilan nag-udyok sa paghihimagsik sa Espanya.
1. Ang pagmamalabis ng mga maykapangyarihang sibil, military, at pangrelihyon. Kung tutusin, karamihan sa mga namamahala ay nagtungo sa kapus-palad na bansang ito upang magsamantala sa lalong karunmal-dumal at kasuklam-suklam na kaparaanan. Tungkol sa mga prayle, and sasabihin ko na lamang ay ito:
Na sila ang naging pangunahing sanhi ng paghihimagsik; sapagkat kinalakal nila ang kanilang banal na tungkulin, nagpataw ng labis-labis na pagpapaupa sa ginawang pansimbahan, at inukol para sa kanilang sarili ang kayamanan ng bansa, at wakas ay ginanti ng punglo at pagtatapon ang mga hinaing ng mahihirap.
2. Ang pang-aaping isinasagawa sa mga mamamayan ng nasabing mga maykapangyarihan, lalung-lao na ang mga makapangyarihang military sa mga bayan-bayan.
3. Ang pagkamak at pag-uusig na ang lagging binabagsakan ay ang mayayaman at matatalinong angkan sa bansa, mabibilang ang mga Pilipinong nakarating sa ituktok ng kaalamang pang-agham na kaligtas sa pag-uusig, pagkakatapon, at kamatayan, bilang gantimpala sa kanilang karunungan at pag-sisikap.
4. Ang may-kiling na pagpapatupad ng batas, bukod sa hindi natatadhana sa kasulatan, ay pinaiiral nang hindi may pagtatangi-tangi sa mga mamamayan at mga Kastila, na ang una ang lagging api at busabos.
A paper on Revolution: The Top Reasons for the Revolution against Spain
1. The excess in the lifestyles of those in power among the civil, military and religious orders have lead to grave abuse. In fact, the many of Spaniards who came to the Philippines were poor and unknown, and they took advantage of the people in such vile and loathsome means. And of the friars, this is all that I can say:
They have become the primary reason for the revolutions, because they foregone their sacred vows, imposed tributes and leases to the church owed lands, hoarded for themselves the wealth of the land, and had arrested and exiled any poor person who would question their misdeeds.
2. The abuses enacted by the rich and powerful, especially those in the military.
3. The arrest and persecution of those from wealthy and educated families, including those who have attained the highest pinnacles in the fields of science, for they have not been exempted from this blame and persecution, exiles, and even death; as a reward for their knowledge and hard work.
4. The random and bias enforcement of the laws, albeit many of these were never actually written into law, and were meted upon the populace, while the Spaniards who broke the laws walked about freely.
As many of these lessons from history are often forgotten and withered in the passage of time, so are these great masterpieces of Graciano Nepomuceno. They stand like silent witnesses to the unfolding of history, and slowly they crack, chip and fade away. It would great to have these pieces restored and displayed to the public, along with the written excerpts as said and written by these heroes.
I am the person who translated all written excerpts, from the native Tagalog language to English. I ask forgiveness for my feeble attempts in translation, to any scholars and historians reviewing this article.